Evaluation of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Highlights of Two Decades of Research In Vitro Studies

Evaluation of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Highlights of Two Decades of Research In Vitro Studies

Published July, 2021

Abstract

Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is a type of physical stimulation that affects biological systems by producing interfering or coherent fields. Given that cell types are significantly distinct, which represents an important factor in stimulation, and that PEMFs can have different effects in terms of frequency and intensity, time of exposure, and waveform. This study is aimed at investigating if distinct positive and negative responses would correspond to specific characteristics of cells, frequency and flux density, time of exposure, and waveform. Necessary data were abstracted from the experimental observations of cell-based in vitro models. The observations were obtained from 92 publications between the years 1999 and 2019, which are available on PubMed and Web of Science databases. From each of the included studies, type of cells, pulse frequency of exposure, exposure flux density, and assayed cell responses were extracted. According to the obtained data, most of the experiments were carried out on human cells, and out of 2421 human cell experiments, cell changes were observed only in 51.05% of the data. In addition, the results pointed out the potential effects of PEMFs on some human cell types such as MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells (p value < 0.001) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, human osteogenic sarcoma SaOS-2 (p < 0.001) and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) showed less sensitivity to PEMFs. Nevertheless, the evidence suggests that frequencies higher than 100 Hz, flux densities between 1 and 10 mT, and chronic exposure more than 10 days would be more effective in establishing a cellular response. This study successfully reported useful information about the role of cell type and signal characteristic parameters, which were of high importance for targeted therapies using PEMFs. Our findings would provide a deeper understanding about the effect of PEMFs in vitro, which could be useful as a reference for many in vivo experiments or preclinical trials.

All content directly sourced from PubMed, read full article here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342182/

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