Using intracerebral microdialysis in urethane-anaesthetized adult male Wistar rats, we monitored the effects of acute repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS; 20 trains of 20 Hz, 2.5 s) on the intrahypothalamic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and selected amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, serine, arginine, taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid) and the intrahippocampal release of monoamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) and their metabolites (homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid). The stimulation parameters were adjusted according to the results of accurate computer reconstructions of the current density distributions induced by rTMS in the rat and human brains, ensuring similar stimulation patterns in both cases. There was a continuous reduction in AVP release of up to 50% within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in response to rTMS. In contrast, the release of taurine, aspartate and serine was selectively stimulated within this nucleus by rTMS. Furthermore, in the dorsal hippocampus the extracellular concentration of dopamine was elevated in response to rTMS. Taken together, these data provide the first in vivo evidence that acute rTMS of frontal brain regions has a differentiated modulatory effect on selected neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems in distinct brain areas.
Eur J Neurosci 2000 Oct;12(10):3713-20
Keck ME, Sillaber I, Ebner K, Welt T, Toschi N, Kaehler ST, Singewald N, Philippu A, Elbel GK, Wotjak CT, Holsboer F, Landgraf R, Engelmann M.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany