In this study, 34 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis-associated infantile nonunions received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results indicated that 50 percent experienced full healing, 21 percent experienced healing with need for protections, and 29 percent experienced failure. The majority of failures were among men with a history of early fracture. Following the
demonstration of coil effects, the PEMF treatment was combined with surgical realignment, immobilization, and grafting.

C.A. Bassett, Congenital Pseudarthroses of the Tibia: Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields, Clin Orthop, (154), January-February 1981, p. 136-148.