This study examined the preventive effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields against delayed union in rat fibular osteotomies and diaphyseal tibia fractures in humans. Results indicated such treatment modulated and accelerated fracture union in both groups.

A.W. Dunn &; G.A. Rush, 3d, “Electrical Stimulation in Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of Fractures and Osteotomies,” Southern Medical Journal, 77(12),December 1984, 1530-1534.