This review article looks at the history of pulsed electromagnetic fields as a means of bone repair. The author argues that success rates have been either superior or equivalent to those of surgery, with PEMF free of side effects and risk.

C.A.L. Bassett, “Historical Overview of PEM-Assisted Bone and Tissue Healing, “Bioelectromagnetics Society, 10th Annual Meeting, 19-24 June 1988, Stamford, CT, . 19.