The cognitive effects of active and sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were examined in 19 middle-aged and elderly patients with refractory depression. Patients received either active (n = 9) or sham (n = 10) rTMS targeted at the anterior portion of the left middle frontal gyrus. Patients in the active rTMS group improved significantly on a test of cognitive flexibility and conceptual tracking (Trail Making Test-B).
Neurology 2002 Apr 23;58(8):1288-90
Moser DJ, Jorge RE, Manes F, Paradiso S, Benjamin ML, Robinson RG. Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA.