This review article notes that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields began in 1974, and that 250,000 nonunion patients have received the treatment since. The author argues that success rates are comparable to those of bone grafting, and that PEMF treatment is more cost-effective and free of side effects. The FDA approved PEMF use in 1982, although it remains widely unused due to physician misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the treatment.

A. Bassett, “Therapeutic Uses of Electric and Magnetic Fields in Orthopedics,& in D.O. Carpenter & S. Ayrapetyan, (eds.), Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields. Volume II: beneficial and Harmful Effects, San Diego: Academic Press, 1994, . 13-48.