A group of 83 adults with ununited fractures were examined for the effects of bone grafting and pulsed electromagnetic fields for this study. Results showed a successful healing rate of 87 percent in the original 38 patients treated with bone grafts and PEMF for ununited fractures with wide gaps, malalignment, and synovial pseudarthrosis. Of the 45 patients that were not successfully treated with PEMF and had bone grafting, when re-treated with pulsing electromagnetic fields, achieved a 93 percent success rate.

C.A. Bassett, et al., “Treatment of Therapeutically Resistant Non-unions with Bone Grafts and Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,” Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 64(8), October 1982, p. 1214-1220.