Results of this study found that 35 of 44 nonunited scaphoid fractures 6 months or older healed in a mean time of 4.3 months during pulsed electromagnetic field treatment using external coils and a thumb spica cast.

G.K. Frykman, et al., “Treatment of Nonunited Scaphoid Fractures Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Cast,” Journal of Hand Surg, 11(3), May 1986, p. 344-349.