In this study, 29 congenital pseudoarthrosis patients received extremely-low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results: Over 70 percent experienced full healing, 21 percent experienced healing with need for protections, and 29 percent experienced failure. The majority of failures were among men with a history of early fracture.

C.A. Bassett, A Non-operative Salvage of Surgically-resistant Pseudarthroses and Non-unions Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields. A Preliminary Report, Clin Orthop, May 1977, p. 128-143.